Many merchants coming into cryptocurrency markets from conventional finance could look to derivatives as autos for worth hypothesis and hedging. There are many selections with regards to exchanges and devices; nevertheless, merchants ought to contemplate a number of key variations between crypto futures and conventional futures earlier than dipping a toe into this quickly rising market.
Completely different devices
Merchants coming into cryptocurrency from the standard markets might be accustomed to futures contracts with a set expiration date. Though fastened expiration contracts may be present in cryptocurrency markets, a major proportion of crypto futures buying and selling is in perpetual contracts, also called perpetual swaps. This variation of a futures contract doesn’t have a set finish date, that means the dealer can maintain an open place indefinitely.
Exchanges that supply perpetual contracts use a mechanism often known as “funding fee” to periodically stability the value variances between the contract markets and the spot costs. If the funding fee is constructive, the perpetual contract worth is greater than the spot fee — longs pay shorts. Conversely, a unfavorable funding fee signifies that shorts pay longs.
Furthermore, merchants that come to cryptocurrency from conventional finance could also be used to the portability of their positions throughout completely different exchanges. In distinction, cryptocurrency exchanges usually function as walled gardens, that means it’s inconceivable to switch derivatives contracts throughout platforms.
Regulated vs. unregulated buying and selling platforms
Many of the buying and selling in cryptocurrency futures — round 85 to 90% — is but to be regulated. This example primarily arose as a result of cryptocurrency futures markets sprang up whereas regulators have been nonetheless grappling with extra elementary questions across the authorized standing of digital belongings. BitMEX paved the way in which for cryptocurrency futures buying and selling through the use of coin-margined and collateralized contracts. In doing so, the corporate averted the regulatory necessities related to fiat on-ramps. There are round a dozen main buying and selling platforms at present, however solely a small variety of them have achieved regulated standing.
Each the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) and Bakkt are regulated by the US Commodity Futures Buying and selling Fee (CFTC). In Europe, Kraken Futures operates under a multilateral trading facility license awarded by the UK Monetary Conduct Authority. In Switzerland, Vontobel and Leonteq offer mini-Bitcoin futures contracts by way of the SIX Swiss Alternate.
The regulatory state of affairs could preclude merchants in some nations from collaborating in buying and selling on non-regulated venues. This circumstance is especially true of the U.S., the place exchanges are aware that the CFTC is now pursuing BitMEX for violating Anti-Cash Laundering rules and the Financial institution Secrecy Act.
Nevertheless, the U.S.-regulated crypto futures platforms have expanded their vary of devices past pure Bitcoin (BTC) futures, seemingly in response to growing demand. The CME, for instance, not too long ago branched out beyond Bitcoin futures and choices to offer Ether (ETH) futures too. As well as, Bakkt additionally gives Bitcoin month-to-month futures and choices.
Unregulated platforms supply futures contracts and perpetual swaps in opposition to a broader vary of altcoins, though solely to merchants in nations the place they’re permitted to function. In any case, most liquidity stays concentrated in BTC and ETH futures, a minimum of for now.
Differing regulatory landscapes, mixed with how perpetual contracts are managed, lead to some sensible variations between crypto futures and conventional futures. As there isn’t any central counterparty clearing system, exchanges expose themselves to a excessive diploma of danger, notably provided that many supply excessive leverages of as much as 125 occasions. Subsequently, dropping positions that attain the upkeep margin might be liquidated.
Exchanges sometimes divert any income from liquidations into an insurance coverage fund, which exists to guard merchants’ income when their counterparty doesn’t have adequate margin to cowl the commerce. The presence and relative well being of an insurance coverage fund is an important consideration when utilizing an unregulated trade. With no fund, or if the fund turns into too low to cowl the losses incurred by liquidations, worthwhile merchants tackle the danger of getting their positions “auto-deleveraged” by the trade.
One other vital operational consideration is trade downtime. Most of the unregulated platforms have a popularity for servers crashing during periods of high volatility, leading to merchants being unable to shut their positions earlier than being liquidated. Subsequently, it’s price researching a platform’s historical past of downtime earlier than opening an account.
Low obstacles to entry
The cryptocurrency futures markets usually have a really low barrier to entry. A dealer can open an account, endure the “know your buyer” course of, deposit funds, and begin buying and selling inside a matter of minutes.
In distinction, the obstacles to entry for exchange-traded futures are excessive as a result of contract sizes concerned, that are supposed for institutional merchants. This example can be mirrored within the regulated crypto futures choices. Each the CME and Bakkt, the 2 regulated crypto futures buying and selling venues, have contract sizes of 5 BTC and 1 BTC, respectively. With costs at present exceeding $31,000, these contracts are evidently solely supposed for these keen to make a major funding.
Nevertheless, blockchain gives vital potential to rework the futures markets past cryptocurrencies by means of asset tokenization. Suppose a futures contract for the Nasdaq-100 or S&P 500 was made obtainable as a token. In that case, it may very well be traded in fractional increments, decreasing obstacles to entry and introducing new sources of liquidity into conventional markets.
Such a state of affairs could profit these trying to introduce a extra fine-grained diversification to their portfolio, which is at present solely doable by way of contracts for differences (CFD). Whereas they carry out an analogous function within the monetary markets, CFDs are solely obtainable by way of brokers, which reduces transparency for the dealer. It additionally fragments the obtainable liquidity within the broader markets.
Regardless of their speedy progress, cryptocurrency futures markets are nonetheless very a lot of their infancy, notably for the reason that institutional influx to crypto is simply getting began. Because the markets develop and develop, we are going to seemingly see new and extra subtle devices emerge, together with some blurring of the boundaries between conventional and digital finance. Moreover, it appears seemingly that the regulatory state of affairs will proceed to evolve as extra funds circulate in. One factor is for certain: cryptocurrency futures have a protracted future forward.
This text doesn’t include funding recommendation or suggestions. Each funding and buying and selling transfer entails danger, and readers ought to conduct their very own analysis when making a call.
The views, ideas and opinions expressed listed here are the creator’s alone and don’t essentially replicate or characterize the views and opinions of Cointelegraph.
Andy Flury is a serial entrepreneur and quantitative buying and selling skilled. Andy is a former Swiss Air Pressure pilot and led initiatives on the Swiss intelligence company and varied main banks. He additionally served as senior mission supervisor and software program architect at Siemens Switzerland AG. In 2010, Andy grew to become companion and head of algorithmic buying and selling at Linard Capital AG, a Switzerland-based quantitative hedge fund. Andy holds a grasp’s in industrial administration and manufacturing engineering from ETH Zurich and an Govt MBA from the College of St. Gallen.